Tuesday, August 19, 2008

Time units in the Vedas by Madan Raheja

Units of Time in the Vedas
(Metrics of Time)
Sidereal metrics:
• A Paramanu is the normal interval (With regards to time, an interval is the duration between two events or occurrences of similar events. It is related to the mathematical concept of interval in that the interval contains all of the points of time between the two events) of blinking in humans, or approximately 4 seconds.
• A Vighadiya is 6 Pranamus (approximately 24 seconds)
• Aghadiya is 60 Vighadiyas (approximately 24 minutes)
• A Muhurt is equal to 2 Ghadiyas, or approximately 48 minutes.
• An important Muhurta is the Brahma Muhurta, which is on the 25th Nadiya or approximately two hours before sunrise. This time is recommended in all practices of yoga and the most appropriate for meditation)
• A Nakshatra Ahoratram or sidereal day (An apparent sidereal day (is the time it takes for the Earth to turn 360 degrees in its rotation; more precisely, is the time it takes the vernal equinox to make two successive upper meridian transit. This is slightly shorter than a solar day; there are 366.2422 sidereal days in a tropical year, but 365.2422 solar days, resulting in a sidereal day of 86,164.09 seconds (or: 23 hours, 56 minutes, 4.09 seconds) is exactly equal to 30 Muhurtas.
Note: According to Hindu belief ‘a day is considered to begin and end at sunrise and not midnight.)

Time units used in the Vedas:
• A Leekshakamu is 1/60th of a Pranamu or 1/15th of a second.
• A Lavamu is 1/60th of a Leekshakamu or 1/900th of a second.
• A Renuvu is 1/60th of a Lavamu or 1/54,000th of a second.
• A Truti is 1/60th of a Renuvu or 1/3,240,000th of a second.

Lunar metrics in the Vedas:
• A Tithi (is a lunar day, or the time it takes for the longitudinal angle between the moon and the sun to increase by 12°.
• Tithis begin at varying times of day and vary in duration from approximately 19 to approximately 26 hours. There are 30 Tithis in each lunar month).
• A Paksha or lunar fortnight consists of 15 Tithis.
• A Maas or lunar month is divided into 2 Pakshas, the one between new moon Traditionally, (the lunar phase new moon begins with the first visible crescent of the Moon, after conjunction with the Sun. This takes place over the western horizon in a brief period between sunset and moonset. Therefore the time and even the day depend on the actual geographical location of the observer) is called Gaura (bright) or Shukla Pksha; the one between full moon and new moon Krishna (dark) Paksha.
• 2 lunar months makes one Ritu. And there are six Ritus (Indian seasons) according to Hindu calendar.
The Season (Ritus):
1- Hemant i.e. pre-winter Margashiirsh to Poush (December to February)
2- Shishir i.e. Winter Maagh to Phaalgun (February to April)
3- Vasant i.e. Spring Chaitra to Vaishaakh (April to June)
4- Griishma i.e. Summer Jyesht to Aashaad June to August)
5- Varsha i.e. Rainy season Shraavan to Bhaadrapad (August to October) and
6- Sharat i.e. Autumn Aashviyuj to Kaartik (October to December).

• 3 Ritus makes an Aayanya.
• 2 Aayanas equal to one year.
• A year is the term for any period of time that is derived from the period of the orbit of the Earth (or indeed any planet) around its Sun).

Sidereal year: the actual period for the Earth to complete one revolution of its orbit, as measured in a fixed frame of reference (such as the fixed stars). Its duration is on average: 365.256363051 days.
• A day is divided into 8 Prahara and each Prahara into 6 Dandas. (Danda is equal to half an hour)
• Each Danda into 25 Laghus
• Each Laghu into 10 Kasthas
• Each Kastha into 5 Ksanas
• Each Ksana into 3 Nimeshas
• Each Nimesh into 3 Lavas
• Each Lava into 3 Vedhas and finally
• Each Vedha into 100 Trutis.
• The Truti is a very fine division of time equal in the modern way equal to 300th of a second. It is quite remarkable that the ancient sages (Rishis) of Aryavrata (India) had such a fine division of time and perhaps it can be attributed to the Vedic Philosophy, other large divisions of time to the above two along with astronomical observations.

A day is divided in:

• 10 long syllables (Gurvakshara) = 1 respiration (Prana)
• 6 respirations = 1 Vinadi
• 60 Vinadis = 1 Nadi and
• 60 Nadis = 1 day (Divas)

Smallest measure of time:
• Paramanu 60,750th of a second
• Krati 34,000th of second
• Truti 300th of a second
• Nimesh 16/75th of a second
• Vipal 2/5th of a second
• Ksan 1 second
• Pal 24 seconds
• Minute 60 seconds
• Ghadi 24 minutes
• Hora Hour 60 minutes
• Divas Day 24 hours
• Saptah 7 days (week)
• Maas 4 weeks (month)
• Varsh 12 Months (Year)
• Satabd One hundred Years (Century)
• Sahasrabd One thousand Year Millennium)
• Dev Yug 12,000 years:

Duration of Creation & Deluge of the Universe:
Time of creation is 4,32,00,00,000 earthly years and same time is set for deluge. According to the Vedas and calculation of Maharishi Manu duration of the Universe i.e. the day of Brahma is calculated as follows:
There are four Yugas; such as Kaliyuga, Dwaparyuga, Tretayuga and Satyuga.
1 Deva year = 360 earthly years.
Krita Yuga (Sat Yuga) = 4,000 Deva years or (4,000 x 360) = 1,440,000
Twilight preceding = 400 Deva years or (400 x 360 yrs) = 14,400
Twilight following = Ditto ………………………………= 14,400
Hence duration of Sat-Yuga = 1,728,000 =  Treta Yuga……….= 3,000 Deva years or (3000 x 360) = 1,080,000
Twilight preceding= 300 ….Deva years or (300 x 360) = 108,000
Twilight following= 300…………Ditto………………......= 108,000
Thus duration of Treta Yuga = 1,296,000
Dwapar Yuga…..= 2,000 Deva years or (2000 x 360) = 720,000
Twilight preceding= ..200 Deva years or (200 x 360) = 72,000
Twilight following=.…………….Ditto…………….. = 72,000
……………………………….Duration of Dwapara Yuga = 864,000
Kali Yuga ………= 1000 Deva years or (1000 x 360) = 360,000
Twilight preceding= 100 Deva years or (100 x 360) = 36,000
Twilight following =……….Ditto…… = l36,000
Duration of Kali Yuga = 432,000
Four Yugas = Satyuga+Treta+Dwapar+Kaliyuga = 4,320,000 (1 Chaturyuga)
71 Chaturyugas i.e. 71 x 4,320,000 = 306,720,000 (1 Manvantra)
306,720,000 (1 Manvantra)
14 Manvantras i.e. 14 x 306,720,000 = 4,294,080,000 earthly years

Note: To this must be added 15 twilights i.e. one at the beginning of each Manvantara and one at the end of the last Manvantaras. Each such Twilight is equal to a Krita Yuga. Thus these should be added thus:
Fifteen twilights = 1,728,000 x 15 ……………….= 25,920,000
i.e. Six Chaturyugas = 4,320,000 x 6……… ..= 25,920,000
15 x 1,728,000 years (construction period for creation) = 25,920,000
 Total duration of a day of Brahma i.e. 100 Chaturyugas) = 4,32,00,00,000 earthly years i.e. 432 million earthly years.
 15 twilights of Manvantaras are equal to 6 four-Yugas i.e. 6 Chaturyugas.
 A day of Brahma consists of 1000 Chaturyugas i.e. 71 x 14 = 994 and when 6 four-Yugas - duration of fifteen twilights added we’ll 1000 Chatauryugas called a day of Brahma. This is the duration of creation i.e. 4,32,00,00,000 worldly years.
 In short:
Kaliyuga = 43200000 (Time period of ‘Kali-Era’)
Dwaparyuga = 86400000 (Double the time of Kaliyuga)
Tretayuga = 129600000 (Triple the time of Kaliyuga)
Satyuga = 172800000 (Four times Kaliyuga time)
• Now above-mentioned the four Yugas (Chaturyugas) make one Creation 4,32,00,00,000 worldly years = 1 Brahma day.
• And same years for Deluge 4,32,00,00,000 = 1 Brahma night.
• Hence 8,64,00,00,000 = Brahma day & night.
• Such 360 Brahma days & nights make one Brahma year = 31,10,40,00,00,000 worldly years. (8640000000 x 360 = 3110400000000)
• And such 100 Brahma years is the time for liberated souls which is equal 36000 times of the period of creation and dissolution of the Universe is also known as “Prant-Kaal” i.e. 8640000000 x 360 x 100 = 31,10,40,00,00,00,000 years). (Rigveda; 6.9.4 & 6.9.5 and Atharvaveda: 10.8.26)
“Parant-Kaal” is thus (In Hindi 31 Neel, 10 Kharab and 40 Arab Varsha) i.e. 311040 billions blissful worldly years, the total period of 'Emancipation' called ‘Salvation’or 'Liberation'.
• In emancipation time (Parant-Kaal) the liberated soul enjoys God’s Bliss. This is called the “Moksha time’ in which the soul is completely free from all worldly pains & sorrows and spends full time in enjoying heavenly pleasures and can travel anywhere in the Universe.

Imp: Inquisitive readers are requested to study the Vedas and related literature to acquire eternal and authoritative knowledge to dispel ignorance that leads to happiness and in touch of Supreme Soul - God.
• God bless all our learned readers.
• Have faith in God who is always with us, within us to guide us.

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Unpredictable death by Madan Raheja

Death is certain and unpredictable because it can come to anyone and anytime during the life time. Science cannot control or prevent it because its an eternal natural law "One who has come has to go" or "What is created will be destroyed" or "One who is born has to die" hence nothing is permanent in this created world. Yes! This creation is created will be destroyed on day.
Of course! There are three things which are 'ETERNAL' namely God, Innumerable souls and the Matter commonly known as 'Nature'. They are called Eternal (Forever) because they are never born or created hence they never die or destroyed.

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